Tuesday, November 28, 2023

concert review: San Francisco Symphony

"Dudamel conducts Brahms" read the slugline on the Symphony's publicity for this concert. But the Brahms was the least significant, or interesting, thing in it. As is usually the case with a Dudamel guest appearance, he brought along something new from Latin America: something good, too - two somethings, and I spent most of my review on those.

Both Gabriela Ortiz, whom I've heard before, and Gonzalo Grau, whom I hadn't, have got the knack for Latin color, and Dudamel conducted them both with his customary Latin verve.

Then there was the Brahms, which approached the soporific, and which Lisa Irontongue, who was at the same performance, found even more annoying than I did. But Lisa seemed puzzled that the finale came out rather well. It seemed to me that this was attendant on Dudamel's generally slow and cautious approach being entirely deliberate, for whatever mysterious reason. Whenever the music sped up, got louder, approached a climax, Dudamel responded by exhibiting some of that energy he'd expended so generously on Ortiz and Grau, though here in a rather dutiful, mechanical manner. The finale is simply by far the fastest and loudest movement of the Brahms Second, and so it got the most of this. Therefore the least uninteresting. And that's it, that's the whole story.

Monday, November 27, 2023

Tolkien Studies 20: an announcement

On behalf of myself and my co-editors, Michael D.C. Drout and Verlyn Flieger, here are the expected contents of volume 20 of the journal Tolkien Studies: An Annual Scholarly Review. All of the works are now in the hands of our publisher, West Virginia University Press, and the volume is scheduled to be published in softcover and on Project MUSE in a few months.

As previously announced, Verlyn Flieger is retiring as co-editor of Tolkien Studies as of the publication of volume 20. Yvette Kisor is joining the editorial team with volume 21. - David Bratman, co-editor

Tolkien Studies 20 (2023)
  • David Bratman, "Charles E. Noad, 1949-2023"
  • John M. Bowers, "Durin's Stone, the Ruthwell Cross, and the Dream of the Rood"
  • Verlyn Flieger, "Tolkien's Great Tales"
  • Thomas P. Hillman, "The Great Tales, Tragedy, and Fairy-story in 'The Choices of Master Samwise'"
  • John F. Whitmire, Jr., "An Archaeology of Hope and Despair in the Tale of Aragorn and Arwen"
  • Kenton L. Sena, "Ecological Memory in Middle-earth: Environmental Legacies of Abuse and Care in the Works of J.R.R. Tolkien"
  • Steven Kielich, "The Many Eyes of Middle-earth: Looking at the Gaze in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings"
  • Ben Reinhard, "The Pillars of Atlantis: Christopher Dawson, J.R.R. Tolkien, and the Shadow of World War II"
  • Patrick Lyon, "Though You Travel Every Road: Heraclitean Paths in Middle-earth"
  • Seth Kreeger, "Metaphysical Considerations of Eä: Creation and Providence in Tolkien and Aquinas"
Notes and Documents
  • Peter Gilliver, "Caught in the Philological Net: Tolkien's Lexicographers"
  • Samuel Cardwell, "A Second Source for Samwise?"
Book Reviews
  • The Battle of Maldon: Together with The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son and 'The Tradition of Versification in Old English,' by J.R.R. Tolkien, edited by Peter Grybauskas, reviewed by Michael D.C. Drout
  • The Great Tales Never End: Essays in Memory of Christopher Tolkien, edited by Richard Ovenden and Catherine McIlwaine, reviewed by Grace Khuri
  • The Fall of Númenor and Other Tales from the Second Age of Middle-earth, by J.R.R. Tolkien, edited by Brian Sibley, reviewed by Dan'l Danehy-Oakes
  • Tolkien Dogmatics: Theology Through Mythology with the Maker of Middle-earth, by Austin M. Freeman, reviewed by The Rev. Tom Emanuel
  • Tolkien's Library: An Annotated Checklist, 2nd edition, by Oronzo Cilli, reviewed by David Bratman
  • Cami D. Agan, David Bratman, Kate Neville, Jennifer Rogers, Jonathan Evans, John Wm. Houghton, and John Magoun, "The Year's Work in Tolkien Studies 2020"
  • David Bratman, "Bibliography (in English) for 2021"
  • "Errata: Chronology of The Lord of the Rings, TS 19 Supp."

Sunday, November 26, 2023

planning ahead

Three weeks ago, I reserved the back room in a restaurant for our book discussion group's annual Reading and Eating Meeting, having lunch there in the process. The meeting date was four weeks in the future, one week now.

Having had occasional experience in the past of initiating and finalizing definite plans for a future date, only to find that the other party assumes that you've canceled the plans because you don't repeatedly ping them in the interim, I decided that I'd better ping before I e-mailed our members the last reminder for the meeting and the details of how to get there.

That meant driving up there again and having lunch again, far from an objectionable prospect. It was quiet there again, and I found the same two staff members on duty as had been there that earlier Saturday. We're meeting next Saturday, so I sense stability here. What's more, they remembered me, apparently for my distinctive habit of reading a book at the table, and they also confirmed the reservation.

So that's done. I went home and wrote the e-mail.

Thursday, November 23, 2023

while the cats waited to be fed

We were kind of late getting home from Thanksgiving at our niece's house, due to the game in which B. got heavily involved - something in which each player draws a picture and the others guess what it's of. (I declined: I'm not a game-playing animal and I can't draw.) So the cats weren't fed until late.

Human food where we went was good. Nephew (niece's husband) took charge of cooking and carving the turkey, despite the limitation of having his favored arm in a sling (recovering from rotator cuff surgery), and successfully achieved tender breast meat. I made an asparagus quiche, the only veggie (not counting the carb dishes) on the table, but not much of it got eaten. That's OK, the rest will be our dinner the next day.

Guests were a combination of family and friends. Hosts' son, now a university sophomore with a beard (he's in advance of me: I didn't grow my beard till I was a rising junior, and at the time it was a lot scragglier than his), made it in from the distant East. His best friends' parents were there. So were the matron of honor at the now 8-year-ago wedding of our other nephew and niece (who were also there) and her daughter, the one who screeched "Hi Mommy!" during the ceremony but is now much older and more sedate.

Much conversation over the cats which our hosts were fostering, and it looks like some adoptions are in the works. (Not from us. We have two, and that's enough.) Also the water which one guest was drinking to clear her palate between glasses of wine. She noted the incongruity of drinking it from a wine glass. I suggested she think of it as an extremely attenuated, possibly homeopathic, white wine: no alcohol, no grape juice, no flavor notes. Nothing about politics, or hardly even sports.

Tuesday, November 21, 2023

Tolkien's letters, take II

It's been a week now since the revised and expanded edition of J.R.R. Tolkien's Letters was published in the US. I wandered down to my local independent bookstore that morning and there it was on the shelf.

I've been reading it, intermittently. It's 708 pages long. The previous edition was 502 pages long. Not only does it have newly-published letters, easily identifiable as they've been given interstitial serial numbers, but, especially in the earlier part of the chronologically-ordered book, additional material has been added to existing letters. That is not marked, but you can find it using this remarkable guide, though I fear that every time they update it (fixing typos, tweaking summaries), they give it a new URL. What I did was go through it with both editions open before me, and draw marginal lines down past the new material in the old letters. It's my copy and I can annotate it in whatever way seems useful.

If I did this for the whole book, it'd be insanely long, but here's a few gems from the new material in the earlier section of the book. This should tempt you into reading this book.
My daughter, aged 8, has long distinguished between literary and actual terrors. She can take any amount of dragon, and a reasonable dose of goblin; but we recently had to change all the handles on the chest-of-drawers in her room, because the former handles 'grinned at her', even in the dark.

[to a son contemplating marriage at an early age] I was less old than you when I met your mother, and I have remained faithful ever since. But that was not the first time I had felt 'in love'. [Really? Considering his living circumstances at the time, where would he have met his previous amour, and who could she have been?]

Last war, I often did not see my sweetheart (and later wife) for weeks and months. I only saw my brother about twice in 3 or 4 years.

Very few men, but practically all women set great store by dates and anniversaries. It does not follow that the men are wholly in the right about it! Anyway as a practical lesson in the way to live and conduct one's social affairs smoothly, this difference between the sexes is well worth remembering. A man can avoid a lot of trouble for himself, and avoid giving much pain to others, by noting it.

I said, outside Lichfield Cathedral, to a friend of my youth - long since dead of gas-gangrene (God rest his soul: I grieve still) [so it was most likely G.B. Smith] - 'Why is that cloud so beautiful?' He said: 'Because you have begun to write poetry, John Ronald.' He was wrong. It was because Death was near, and all was intolerably fair, lost ere grasped. That was why I began to write poetry.

I have no advice to give except to practice your religion as well as you can: taking every opportunity of the sacraments (esp. Confession) and pray: Pray on your feet, in cars, in blank moments of boredom. Not only petitionary prayer.

Open air preacher being heckled, particularly by one ill-favoured and rather dirty little man on the outskirts. He kept on shouting, whenever the preacher paused for breath: 'Gah! Christianity's been in the world 2000 years, and what good's it done?' waving towards the unsavoury surrounding slum. The preacher at last lost his temper and shouted back: 'Water's been in the world more than 2000 years, and look at your neck!'

On Sat. we go into that infernal, abominable, never to be sufficiently execrated Double S[ummer] Time (which has contributed as much as any other single factor to my weariness). God deliver us from it soon. I shd. like to put 'Freedom of the Clock' or 'Hands of the Hour Hand' into the Atlantic Charter. (Not that that would do much good.) [A fellow hater of DST! God bless you, Professor!]

I would not really like to endure my teens again, but I fancy (idly, for the thought is really meaningless) I could at least make better use of the time since 25 (espec. 25-45) if 'I had it again.' But 'I've had it' as they say now. There is of course always some best use we can make of our time, even in the most abominable exterior circumstances, and only one time (with no return) in which to make it.

Monday, November 20, 2023

camera obscura

I have finally reached success, sort of, in my quest for a camera for my computer.

When the pandemic began and meetings on Zoom entered my consciousness, I searched online for a simple camera to plug into a USB port in my computer. I bought one, and it works, but the cable is only 4 feet long, too short to put it in an agreeable spot.

So I went back on line and ordered an extension cable - 3 feet long, which was barely long enough. It worked: for about six months. Then when I plugged it in, Zoom would fail to recognize that a camera was there. The camera alone worked fine; it was the cable.

So I bought another one. It too worked fine for about six months and then failed.

I left a bad review and bought a longer cable. It didn't work at all.

Figuring the problem was that the cable might not be camera-enabled, I tried to find another cable that was camera-enabled and was also - which was mostly incompatible with being camera-enabled - a USB-A male to female port cable. Eventually I found one. But, though it said it was camera enabled, it didn't work at all either.

At that point I figured the only solution was to get a new camera. But few of the likely cameras had info in their description saying how long the cable was, and those which did the cable was too short. The photos that you can close-up on didn't show the cables at all.

But eventually I found one, and today was my first opportunity to see if it works. It does, and the cable is long enough. Only problem is that, although I'm placing it in the same spot as the previous camera, its viewshot is much more close-up. If there's a way to modify that, I don't know what it is.

But at least for the moment it works.

Sunday, November 19, 2023

concert review: Symphony Parnassus

I'd long known of this group, but I'd never been to one of its concerts before.

It started out as a faculty ensemble at the local medical school, and it still has a lot of doctors and other professionals in its ranks, though the only name I was familiar with was the principal violist, who is also a locally noted solo pianist. I also know the conductor, Stephen Paulson, as he is also the principal bassoon for the San Francisco Symphony (and who looks like a cross between Allen Ginsberg and Santa Claus).

They split their concerts between two venues in San Francisco, both tiny auditoriums with extremely bright acoustics. This concert was at the main hall of the San Francisco Conservatory. The place was absolutely packed. Other community orchestras would be so jealous.

As a volunteer group, Parnassus's technical level of playing is outstanding, just about good enough to be professional. Stylistically, they play as you would expect doctors to: brisk, clear-cut, devoid of excess emotion.

This turns out to be the right attitude to approach Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto with (Parker Van Ostrand, a Conservatory student, was soloist): no fat, no longeurs, just a little raw Tchaikovsky. Shostakovich's Fifth Symphony, though, came out a bit oddly, with unnervingly soft climaxes in the slow movements, plus an ending so abrupt nobody knew when to clap.

Saturday, November 18, 2023

concert cohesion

I had a busy day last Sunday. I was reviewing two concerts for my two outlets. The first concert was at 4 pm in Palo Alto; that meant it should be over about 6. It's about a half hour drive from there to Willow Glen, where the second concert began at 7. So if I packed a bag lunch in my car, I figured, and ate it on the way, I should make it without too much squeezing.

The 4 PM concert was the New Millennium Chamber Orchestra, and it was an interesting combination of 18th century music from different periods of the century plus two 21st century works by American women, both of whom I'd heard works by before.

But it wasn't over until 6:10, and after a pit stop - for I knew the facilities were even more hazardous where I was going than where I came from - I wasn't on my way until 6:15. I pulled into a parking place - some distance away, because there's only street parking there and I was late - at 6:52. Fortunately I didn't have to rush, and the concert didn't begin until 7:05 anyway. This was the San Jose Chamber Orchestra again - I'd just done them - in a bizarre meeting of two disparate contemporary composers, Stacy Garrop and John Tavener.

Thursday, November 16, 2023

concert review: Other Minds Festival

Other Minds is an annual festival of new and experimental music. I've been to a few of its concerts before when they were playing something I really wanted to hear: Henry Cowell retrospectives, Lou Harrison retrospectives, Michael Nyman. On Wednesday, perforce I found myself attending an Other Minds concert of stuff I didn't know anything about for no more reason than it was what was on. I don't think I'll do this again.

The concert consisted of sets running about 3/4 of an hour each by two composers/performers.

First was Ellen Arkbro, who has studied with LaMonte Young and taken up his ideas of sustained tones with minimal motion but without, it seems, his ideas of expansive universal embrace. She began by turning on a computer emitting a painfully loud electronic buzzing, which changed pitch occasionally, on top of which she softly added held trumpet notes. Then she turned that off, replacing the buzzing with equally painful dissonant chords from three guys on tubas. (Irrelevant thoughts of the three guys on bass at the bottom of the Ninth.)

Second was Craig Taborn, who improvises at the piano. He's reputedly classed as a jazz pianist, but only a little of what he played sounded like jazz. A little more sounded like wildly cascading atonalism. But most of it sounded like children's finger exercises.

Some music finds profundity within surface simplicity, and I cherish such music. But other work just captures the surface.


I will admit it was impressive to discover, during the introductions preceding the concert, that the old white-haired man sitting right in front of me was Morton Subotnick. I heard his Silver Apples of the Moon half a century ago, my first exposure to purpose-written electronic music, and though I didn't like it very much my mind was expanded thereby.


It remains to be noted that this concert took place in San Francisco during the APEC conference and, therefore, also during the protests against the APEC conference. I ensured beforehand that I wouldn't have to pass through those parts of the city and that didn't cause me any problems. I had a little less luck regarding the meeting of Biden and Xi at a country estate located just off the freeway on my route up. The local road closures for this didn't cause any backups on the freeway, but the protests outside those closures did.

Tuesday, November 14, 2023

o to be a blogger

1. Due tribute to the fine sf author Michael Bishop, who died on Monday. His novel Unicorn Mountain won the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award in 1989, and my vote was among those it got. In the sf field he seems most known for his weird and imaginative tribute novel Philip K. Dick is Dead, Alas. But that wasn't his only story in honor of PKD: There's also his even more peculiar short "Rogue Tomato," which is the first Bishop story I ever read, never to be forgotten. When I got to meet him in person a couple years later, I mostly burbled about "Rogue Tomato."
Then there was the time that Ursula K. Le Guin, a woman writer with children, lamented the lack of depiction of her kind in fiction. Has there ever, she asked, been a protagonist who was a woman writer with children in a novel written by a man? And the answer was yes: Who Made Stevie Crye? by Michael Bishop.
But he also wrote many other notable and impressively readable books.
Michael Bishop also suffered the unspeakable tragedy of having his son, who was an instructor at Virginia Tech, killed in the massacre shooting there in 2007.

2. Due crogglement at the appointment of former UK prime minister David Cameron as the new foreign secretary. But, many exclaimed, he isn't even a member of Parliament any more! (The UK, plus the Republic of Ireland and so far as I know no other countries, functionally require their political executives to simultaneously be members of the legislature. This supposedly is so that they can stand up in the legislature and answer for themselves, but there are many other ways to make executives answerable to legislators.) So that's easy enough, he's being appointed to the House of Lords. But the House of Lords, being very much these days a secondary body, is not where cabinet members sit, aside from the Lords floor leader. So let's check the historical facts here, and establish that:
a) It does still happen that other cabinet members sit in the Lords. Both Boris Johnson and Gordon Brown had them for relatively brief periods.
b) It's also happened more than once since the Lords demotion that the foreign secretary in particular has sat in the Lords (one remembers Lord Halifax in the runup to WW2), but until now it hadn't happened for 40 years.
c) It's also occasionally happened that former prime ministers return to the cabinet in subsidiary roles, but until now not for 50 years.

3. I am thankful that people writing about Artificial Intelligence seem to be taking to calling it A.I. Calling it AI in sans-serif typefaces made it look too much like Al, as in Al Haig or Ring Lardner's You Know Me Al. And I would keep wondering who this Al character was.

4. Here's a list of the longest-running shows on Broadway. The ones I've seen on stage are:
Cats (touring company, in San Jose)
Les Misérables (touring company, in San Francisco)
Rent (Oregon Shakespeare Festival production)
Fiddler on the Roof (at least twice, including a fabulous high school production)
Hello, Dolly! (in San Francisco years ago, can't remember the circumstances)
My Fair Lady (at least four times, most recently the Lincoln Center revival on my last trip to NYC)

Sunday, November 12, 2023

concert review: California Symphony

The three works on this concert had two things in common: they're all cheerful, upbeat music, and they have something to do with water.

Handel's Water Music originated as a long-form serenade for entertainment at a royal dinner held on a barge on the Thames. We had about 45 minutes of it, in chipper, energetic performances.

Robert Schumann's "Rhenish" Symphony was written in the flush of excitement of moving to the Rhineland to take up an appointment as conductor of an orchestra there. Schumann knew he wasn't a good conductor; he should have guessed this wouldn't end well. But for the moment, he was enthusiastic, and so is this symphony. It was a big, bold, dynamic performance, full of expressive variations in volume and tempo. Lots of great brass work, and not just in the movement depicting a grand ceremony in Cologne Cathedral across the river.

Chance of Rain is the third and final piece composed by Viet Cuong during his residency as house composer. It's a fast and nervous work consisting mostly of static phase minimalism, which gives the music an echo effect. Then - without changing the underlying music any - he throws in a popular dance beat on top.

Friday, November 10, 2023

not as final as I'd hoped

Phone. Person taking a survey. Didn't stop to ask if I wanted to be surveyed, plunged in to the first question, which was, "What's the most important problem facing your community?"

I said, "Well, I'd put unwanted phone calls high on the list," and hung up.

Would you believe they called me back? Get a clue!

Tuesday, November 7, 2023

concert review: Sitkovetsky Trio

This was a challenging concert to review, because I realized as I sat down to write that I didn't have much to say about it. It was a decent performance. I settled on emphasizing that I thought some of the pieces worked better than others.

My editor had alerted the staff not to waste space on long explanations of the California Festival that many of this and next week's concerts that we're covering are part of. We've published some feature articles about the festival and people seeking details can go there. Basically it seems to be a designation dropped on any concert this month with music associated with California in it.

And this one got it, despite 3/4 of it being the usual 19C European stuff, because the fourth work is by the contemporary Julia Adolphe. She wasn't born or raised in California, she doesn't live here now, but she was in LA for a few years when at grad school at USC, and that seems to make her enough of a Californian to make it worth slapping a California Festival label on this concert.

I didn't mention it at all.

Monday, November 6, 2023

legal wiseguy

Our play-reading group has just finished with The Merchant of Venice, and rather than discuss the anti-semitism in the play, I'd like to address the twists in logic in the trial scene.

Shylock the moneylender, who has a major grudge against Antonio the merchant - the why of which goes back to the anti-semitism, so not for discussion today - lent him a large sum of money with a quaint forfeit should Antonio default: a pound of flesh from around Antonio's heart, to be cut out by Shylock himself.

Antonio did default, and now we've gone to court to test if the forfeit is valid. Portia in disguise appears as a learned attorney.

First she establishes that the forfeit is real and that Antonio agreed to it. Then, with a famous speech on the quality of mercy, she asks Shylock to be merciful. He refuses, and says he'll give no reason. He is offered twice the original loan amount, but says he'd rather have his bond.

Very well, says Portia, cut away.

But hold! she adds. You must not shed one drop of blood nor take an ounce more or less than a pound of flesh, lest your life be forfeit.

Shylock says, in that case I'll drop my demand and take the monetary offer.

Not a chance, says Portia. You said you'd have your bond.

This is the first place where Portia plays legal wiseguy. Shylock's refusal of the monetary offer was conditioned on his ability to take the forfeit. You've changed the conditions from when he made the choice. By making it in practice impossible for Shylock to take the forfeit - no demurrals now, you know that's what you've done - you've made it impossible for him to get what he says he wants, so he is justified in choosing again.

Then Portia cries hold! again. By seeking Antonio's life, and it's clear that threatening the pound of flesh is doing so, Shylock has broken Venetian law and again his life and goods are forfeit.

But wait a minute. Legal wiseguy again. If all that is true, then the loan was always invalid. Shylock should have been arrested when he first proposed the notion; if not, it still should have been thrown out of court at the first opportunity.

Having tricked and bamboozled Shylock, Portia proceeds to trick and bamboozle her own husband over a ring she gave him. WTF?

Sunday, November 5, 2023

in the restaurant

For half a century, early in December our Mythopoeic Society book discussion group has held an annual Reading and Eating Meeting. We gather for a potluck meal and then take turns reading short selections around the (once real, later theoretical) fire. But we have lost our (almost) invariable hosts. Amy died last spring and Edith moved back to her original home town of Buffalo. Nobody left has a large enough living room for the meal as well as the people, and since I've also inherited Edith's position as secretary (I was already the only person keeping track of meeting dates anyway), it was up to me to find a solution.

Somebody suggested that we rent a private room in a restaurant. Somebody had a suggestion: an Irish pub up the Peninsula that says it will rent out rooms or the whole restaurant. I asked for other suggestions. I got just one, but it's no longer open for lunch and we want to meet in the daytime, so that's out.

I'd never been to this pub, so I decided to check it out physically before I enquired. I knew about where it was, but I hadn't memorized the street number.

I couldn't find it.

I went to the nearest public library and looked the pub's address up on the computer. Turned out its sign was small and obscure, and was anyway hidden behind the awning that covers the outside tables.

Then I couldn't get in the restaurant. The entire place was being rented out that day, except for the outside tables. I sat at one of the outside tables and ordered a hamburger, which was pretty good. So was the bottle of Irish cider I had with it, despite the fact that the very young, very green server didn't know what "cider" was.

I had to come back later. I was free last Tuesday, but then I thought, it's Halloween so who knows what might be going on. I finally got there on Saturday, when they open early. This time I ordered the Irish breakfast. Don't tell the Irish this, but it's pretty much the same thing as an English breakfast, with the bacon and sausage and beans and black pudding and eggs and tomato and potatoes. It was very hearty and not totally unworthy of the name. So on the basis of two meals I give them a plus on food.

And I asked about reserving a room. This time I got the manager on duty, so the conversation was definitive. Turns out there's just one room, it's in the back and seats 20. Didn't look well ventilated. I was assured it's quiet, but that remains to be seen. They asked for a guarantee of ten attendees. I'm not at all sure we'll get that many, but I'm prepared to cover the cost of the non-appearers if there aren't. I'm just not sure if this is going to work very well.

Another reason it may not work is parking. It's in a very crowded downtown. Parking, if you can find any, is limited to two hours. That's not long enough for us. All I can say is that my own experience in the area outstaying the shorter limits on other parking spaces has not gotten me a ticket, so they don't appear to be very vigilant.

However, it is just a few blocks from a BART station, so people coming from BART direction can walk if they're willing to walk that far, or drivers can park in the BART garage, where there is no effective time limit on weekends.

Four weeks to the meeting, so I'll let you know how it goes.

Friday, November 3, 2023

concert review: San Francisco Symphony

Ludovic Morlot conducted.

Featured work, a crisp and vivid performance of the Ravel orchestration of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. This was supplemented by a screen on which were shown images of works by two local artists whom SFS commissioned to create pictures inspired by the scenes in the music. Fernando Escartiz made chicks in the shells and the Great Gate of Kiev very much like those of Viktor Hartmann who'd inspired Mussorgsky, and his gnome looked like Walt Kelly had drawn it. Liz Hernandez had a plain, black and white style, the sort that makes Grandma Moses look sophisticated.

Augustin Hadelich gave a smooth and effortless run through Dvorak's Violin Concerto.

The opening was a new piece by the French (of U.S. parentage) composer Betsy Jolas. Being 97 years old, Jolas is unsurprisingly an unreconstructed modernist, and her piece was 15 minutes of unreconstructed modernist twaddle.